A search for pair production of third-generation scalar leptoquarks and supersymmetric top quark partners, top squarks, in final states involving tau leptons and bottom quarks is presented. The search uses events from a data sample of proton–proton collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb −1 , collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with s=8 TeV . The number of observed events is found to be in agreement with the expected standard model background. Third-generation scalar leptoquarks with masses below 740 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level, assuming a 100% branching fraction for the leptoquark decay to a tau lepton and a bottom quark. In addition, this mass limit applies directly to top squarks decaying via an R-parity violating coupling λ333′ . The search also considers a similar signature from top squarks undergoing a chargino-mediated decay involving the R-parity violating coupling λ3jk′ . Each top squark decays to a tau lepton, a bottom quark, and two light quarks. Top squarks in this model with masses below 580 GeV are excluded at 95% conf ... mehridence level. The constraint on the leptoquark mass is the most stringent to date, and this is the first search for top squarks decaying via λ3jk′ .