Dust aerosols are thought to be the main contributor to atmospheric ice nucleation. While there are case studies supporting this, a climatological sense of the importance of dust to atmospheric ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations, and it's seasonal variability over Europe is lacking. Here, we use a mesoscale model to estimate Saharan dust concentrations over Europe in winter and summer of 2007–2008. There are large differences in median dust concentrations between seasons, with the highest concentrations and highest variability in the lowest 4 km. Laboratory based ice nucleation parameterisations are applied to these dust number concentrations to calculate the potential INP resulting from immersion freezing and deposition nucleation on these dust particles. The potential INP concentrations generally increase with height due to decreasing temperatures in the lower and mid-troposphere and exhibit a maximum in the upper troposphere where INP concentrations decrease again with altitude due to decreasing dust concentrations. The potential INP profiles exhibit similarly large differences between seasons, with the highest concentrations in winter (median potential immersion INP concentrations up to 103 m−3, median potential deposition INP concentrations at 120% relative humidity with respect to ice up to 105 m−3) occurring closer to the ground for both nucleation modes. ... mehrUsing these results, a best-fit function is provided to estimate the potential INPs for use in limited-area models, which is representative of the normal background INP concentrations over Europe. A statistical evaluation of the results against field and laboratory measurements indicates that the INP concentrations are in close agreement with observations.