Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel.
Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg biomass’), costs, and environmental impacts with a focus on GHG emissions. We took into consideration the real-life driving conditions and corresponding car classes as well as market penetration scenarios for electric and gaseous fuel cars.
Our results show that the technical efficiency of biogenic electricity is high, while the economic and environmental results strongly depend on the car size and market penetration assumptions. Furthermore, it is essential to clearly define the main goal of introducing fuels from forest residues. If the goal is to reduce GHG emissions at the lowest cost, SNG (and natural gas) in bigger cars is preferable. For h ... mehrigh GHG reductions at the lowest forest residue consumption, biogenic electricity in smaller commuter-type cars are found to be a good solution. This also proves true for the aggregated environmental impact score ReCiPe Total.
It is important to include mobility patterns and a clear goal definition when comparing biogenic fuels. In Germany, biogenic electricity, SNG, and FT diesel can reduce GHG emissions at reduction costs of around 100 €/t CO2-Eq when used the right way.