Effects of Integrating Electric Vehicles and Stationary Batteries in a Smart Urban Electricity Network
The aim of the European Union to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the following decades has a great influence on the transport and the energy sector. Electric vehicles and renewable energy sources are seen as outstanding possibilities on this way. An interrelation of these technologies seems to be a promising option. In our contribution we address some challenges, which come along with this interrelation. From a system perspective, more flexibility is needed. One option is to extend flexible demand through dynamic pricing, which timulates a demand response. Electric vehicles can contribute to this objective when the comprehensive load shifting potentials are activated. In addition, the application of local storage devices is discussed to relieve local grids and support the integration of decentralized electricity generation by renewable energy sources.
In this contribution we analyze the effects of dynamic pricing for controlled and bi-directional charging of electric vehicles and the use of stationary battery systems in an urban electricity system. Therefore, we developed an optimization model for the application planning of the charging processes of electric vehicles and stationary storage systems. We demonstrate the high technical and economic potential for load shifting of the charging processes of electric vehicles with controlled charging. Furthermore, we identified positive and negative effects of real time pricing and load limits concerning cost and emission reductions and effects on grid loads. Only the use of stationary battery systems at home together with a load limit has positive effects for integrating photovoltaics and foster CO2 emission reductions. With real time pricing the stationary battery systems are used for arbitrage at the day-ahead market.
|Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT
||Deutsch-Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung (DFIU)
Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)
KITopen ID: 1000050110
||European Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress (EEVC 2014), Brussels, 2st to 5th December 2014
||smart grid, battery charge, emissions, optimization, modeling
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