New Physics that becomes relevant at some high scale Λ beyond the experimental reach, can be described in the effective theory approach by adding higher-dimensional operators to the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian. In Higgs pair production through gluon fusion, which gives access to the trilinear Higgs self-coupling, this leads not only to modifications of the SM couplings but also induces novel couplings not present in the SM. For a proper prediction of the cross section, higher order QCD corrections that are important for this process, have to be taken into account. The various higher-dimensional contributions are affected differently by the QCD corrections. In this paper, we provide the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to Higgs pair production including dimension-6 operators in the limit of large top quark masses. Depending on the dimension-6 coefficients entering the Lagrangian, the new operators affect the relative NLO QCD corrections by several per cent, while modifying the cross section by up to an order of magnitude. © 2015, The Author(s).