We introduce a space-time discretization for linear first-order hyperbolic evolution systems using a discontinuous Galerkin approximation in space and a Petrov-Galerkin scheme in time. We show well-posedness and convergence of the discrete system. Then we introduce an adaptive strategy based on goal-oriented dual-weighted error estimation. The full space-time linear system is solved with a parallel multilevel preconditioner. Numerical experiments for the linear transport equation and the Maxwell equation in 2D underline the effciency of the overall adaptive solution process.