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Solar energy storage in German households: profitability, load changes and flexibility

Kaschub, Thomas; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

Abstract: The developments of battery storage technology together with photovoltaic (PV) roof-top systems might lead to far-reaching changes in the electricity demand structures and flexibility of households. The implications are supposed to affect the generation mix of utilities, distribution grid utilization, and electricity price. Using a techno-economic optimization model of a household system, we endogenously dimension PV system and stationary battery storage (SBS). The results of the reference scenario show positive net present values (NPV) for PV systems of approx. 500-1,800 EUR/kWp and NPV for SBS of approx. 150-500 EUR/kWh. Main influences are the demand of the households, self-consumption rates, investment costs, and electricity prices. We integrate electric vehicles (EV) with different charging strategies and find increasing NPV of the PV system and self-consumption of approx. 70%. With further declining system prices for solar energy storage and increasing electricity prices, PV systems and SBS can be profitable in Germany from 2018 on even without a guaranteed feed-in tariff or subsidies. Grid utilization substantially changes by households with EV and PV-SBS. We discuss effects of different incentives and electricity tariff options (e.g. load limits or additional demand charges). Concluding, solar energy storage systems will bring substantial changes to electricity sales.

Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Deutsch-Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung (DFIU)
Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Jahr 2016
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.09.017
ISSN: 0301-4215, 1873-6777
URN: urn:nbn:de:swb:90-595122
KITopen ID: 1000059512
Erschienen in Energy policy
Band 98
Heft SI
Seiten 520-532
Schlagworte Demand flexibility; Optimization model; Tariff design; Electric vehicles; Controlled charging; Battery storage profitability
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