Herein, an investigation of the impact of the dopant and carbon content in iron-doped zinc oxide/carbon composites is presented. For this purpose, a comprehensive morphological, structural, and electrochemical characterization of a series of different compounds is reported, including techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), specific surface area using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) algorithm, pycnometry, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic cycling. The obtained results reveal an impact of the iron-dopant content on the crystallite and particle size as well as the detailed de-/lithiation mechanism. The effect on the cycling stability, however, appears to be rather minor. The carbon coating content, on the contrary, has a significant influence on the cycling stability and rate capability. According to these results, a carbon content of about 10 wt% is sufficient to achieve stable cycling at lower current densities, while a carbon content of 15–20 wt% allows for specific capacities of 425–500 mAh g−1, when applying a specific current of 1 A g−1, for instance.