Industrial ultrafast lasers are a key component of many new industrial manufacturing processes. The virtually athermal nature of the laser–matter interaction process enables high-quality material processing for many different materials with feature size reaching into the nanometer scale. Advances in laser average power and beam-delivery technology have significantly improved the throughput and productivity of real-life industrial and medical applications. In this article, we present key examples of laser processing, including drilling, cutting, and surface processing. In particular, we describe how ultrafast lasers can improve vision in patients, extend battery lifetime, improve the efficiency of solar cells and infrared detectors, or be applied in the printing or microelectronics industries. These examples demonstrate how further developments rely on a combination of laser technology, beam handling and delivery, and laser–matter interaction processes.