Laser-assisted modification of metals, polymers or ceramics yields a precise adjustment of wettability, bio-compatibility or tribological properties for a broad range of applications. Two types of advanced laser processing technologies - direct laser interference patterning and ultrafast laser-induced periodic surface structuring - were applied in this study. Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on metallic substrate was investigated systematically as function of wavelength, pulse duration, laser fluence and scanning speed. Line-like periodic patterns with adjustable periodicity were successfully formed on metallic substrates. For lithium-ion batteries, composite electrode materials were deposited by tape-casting on laser micro/nano-structured metallic current collectors. Tensile strength measurements revealed a tremendous improvement of film adhesion.