Extreme weather conditions, like heat waves and drought, can substantially affect tree physiology and the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), including isoprene. To date, however, there is only limited understanding of BVOC emission patterns during prolonged heat and coupled heat–drought stress as well as post-stress recovery. To assess the impacts of heat and heat–drought stress on BVOC emissions, we studied gas exchange and isoprene emissions of black locust trees under controlled environmental conditions. Leaf gas exchange of isoprene, CO2 and H2O was quantified using branch chambers connected to a protontransfer-reaction mass spectrometer and an infrared gas analyzer. Heat and heat–drought stress resulted in a sharp decline of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Simultaneously, isoprene emissions increased six- to eight-fold in the heat and heat–drought treatment and resulted in a carbon loss that was equivalent to 12 % and 20 % of assimilated carbon at the time of measurement. Once temperature stress was released at the end of two 15 days long heat waves, stomatal conductance remained reduced, while is ... mehroprene emissions and photosynthesis recovered quickly to values of the control trees. Further, we found isoprene emissions to co-vary with net photosynthesis during non-stressful conditions, while during the heat waves, isoprene emissions could be solely described by non-linear functions of light and temperature. However, when isoprene emissions betweentreatments were compared under the same temperature and light conditions (e.g., T = 30° C, PAR = 500 µmol m−2 s−1), heat and heat–drought stressed trees would emit less isoprene than control trees. Ourfindings suggest that different parameterizations of light and temperature functions are needed in order to predict tree isoprene emissions under heat and combined heat–drought stress.