The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24 h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. Furthermore, it will examine how the circadian clock contributes to adult stem cell function in different tissues of the body with an emphasis on the brain and adult neurogenesis.