Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retina and corneal confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of the subbasal nerve plexus (SBP) are noninvasive techniques for quantification of the ocular neurodegenerative changes in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In adult T1DM patients these changes are hardly related to T1DM only. Instead, ageing and/or lifestyle associated comorbidities have to be considered as putative confounding variables. Therefore, we investigated pediatric T1DM patients (n = 28; 14.2 ± 2.51 y; duration of disease: 5.39 ± 4.16 y) without clinical signs of diabetic retina disease, neuropathy, vasculopathy or nephropathy and compared our findings with those obtained in healthy controls (n = 46; 14.8 ± 1.89 y). The SBP was characterized by the averaged length, thickness, and tortuosity of nerve fibers as well as the number of branching and connecting points. OCT was used to determine the total thickness of the retina (ALL) and the thickness of each retinal layer. Both methods revealed signs of early neurodegenerative changes, e.g. thinning of distinct retinal layers at the pericentral ring and shortening of corneal nerve fibers that are already present in pediatric T1DM patients. ... mehrStandardization of instruments and algorithms are urgently required to enable uniform comparison between different groups and define normative values to introduce in the clinical setting.