In this article, we present a novel theory for the long term evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) in lithium-ion batteries and propose novel validation measurements. Both SEI thickness and morphology are predicted by our model as we take into account two transport mechanisms, i.e., solvent diffusion in the SEI pores and charge transport in the solid SEI phase. We show that a porous SEI is created due to the interplay of these transport mechanisms. Different dual layer SEIs emerge from different electrolyte decomposition reactions. We reveal the behavior of such dual layer structures and discuss its dependence on system parameters. Model analysis enables us to interpret SEI thickness fluctuations and link them to the rate-limiting transport mechanism. Our results are general and independent of specific modeling choices, e.g., for charge transport and reduction reactions.