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Moist Orographic Convection: Physical Mechanisms and Links to Surface-Exchange Processes

Kirshbaum, Daniel; Adler, Bianca; Kalthoff, Norbert; Barthlott, Christian; Serafin, Stefano

This paper reviews the current understanding of moist orographic convection and its regulation by surface-exchange processes. Such convection tends to develop when and where moist instability coincides with sufficient terrain-induced ascent to locally overcome convective inhibition. The terrain-induced ascent can be owing to mechanical (airflow over or around an obstacle) and/or thermal (differential heating over sloping terrain) forcing. For the former, the location of convective initiation depends on the dynamical flow regime. In “unblocked” flows that ascend the barrier, the convection tends to initiate over the windward slopes, while in “blocked” flows that detour around the barrier, the convection tends to initiate upstream and/or downstream of the high terrain where impinging flows split and rejoin, respectively. Processes that destabilize the upstream flow for mechanically forced moist convection include large-scale moistening and ascent, positive surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, and differential advection in baroclinic zones. For thermally forced flows, convective initiation is driven by thermally direct circulations with sharp updrafts over or downwind of the mountain crest (daytime) or foot (nighttime). ... mehr

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Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000080575
Veröffentlicht am 27.02.2018
DOI: 10.3390/atmos9030080
Zitationen: 39
Web of Science
Zitationen: 35
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Forschungsbereich Troposphäre (IMK-TRO)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 03.2018
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2073-4433
KITopen-ID: 1000080575
HGF-Programm 12.01.02 (POF III, LK 01) Proc.res.f.multisc.predictab.of weather
Erschienen in Atmosphere
Verlag MDPI
Band 9
Heft 3
Seiten 80
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 25.02.2018
Schlagwörter moist convection; orography; mesoscale; cumulus clouds; precipitation
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
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