Resolving the microscopic pairing mechanism and its experimental identification in unconventional superconductors is among the most vexing problems of contemporary condensed matter physics. We show that Raman spectroscopy provides an avenue towards this aim by probing the structure of the pairing interaction at play in an unconventional superconductor. As we study the spectra of the prototypical Fe-based superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2 for 0.22 ≤ x ≤ 0.70 in all symmetry channels, Raman spectroscopy allows us to distill the leading s-wave state. In addition, the spectra collected in the B1g symmetry channel reveal the existence of two collective modes which are indicative of the presence of two competing, yet sub-dominant, pairing tendencies of dx2−y2 symmetry type. A comprehensive functional Renormalization Group and random-phase approximation study on this compound confirms the presence of the two sub-leading channels, and consistently matches the experimental doping dependence of the related modes. The consistency between the experimental observations and the theoretical modeling suggests that spin fluctuations play a significant role in superconducting pairing.