Surface waves are widely used in near-surface geophysics and provide a non-invasive way to determine near-surface structures. By extracting and inverting dispersion curves to obtain local 1D S-wave velocity profiles, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) has been proven as an efficient way to analyze shallow-seismic surface waves. By directly inverting the observed waveforms, full-waveform inversion (FWI) provides another feasible way to use surface waves in reconstructing near-surface structures. This paper provides a state of the art on MASW and shallow-seismic FWI, and a comparison of both methods.
A two-parameter numerical test is performed to analyze the nonlinearity of MASW and FWI, including the classical, the multiscale, the envelope-based, and the amplitude-spectrum-based FWI approaches. A checkerboard model is used to compare the resolution of MASW and FWI. These numerical examples show that classical FWI has the highest nonlinearity and resolution among these methods, while MASW has the lowest nonlinearity and resolution. The modified FWI approaches have an intermediate nonlinearity and resolution between classic ... mehral FWI and MASW. These features suggest that a sequential application of MASW and FWI could provide an efficient hierarchical way to delineate near-surface structures. We apply the sequential-inversion strategy to two field data sets acquired in Olathe, Kansas, USA, and Rheinstetten, Germany, respectively. We build a 1D initial model by using MASW and then apply the multiscale FWI to the data. High-resolution 2D S-wave velocity images are obtained in both cases, whose reliabilities are proven by borehole data and a GPR profile, respectively. It demonstrates the effectiveness of combining MASW and FWI for high-resolution imaging of near-surface structures.