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Strong impact of wildfires on the abundance and aging of black carbon in the lowermost stratosphere

Ditas, Jeannine; Ma, Nan; Zhang, Yuxuan; Assmann, Denise; Neumaier, Marco; Riede, Hella; Karu, Einar; Williams, Jonathan; Scharffe, Dieter; Wang, Qiaoqiao; Saturno, Jorge; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Katich, Joseph M.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Zahn, Andreas; Hermann, Markus; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; ... mehr

Abstract:
Wildfires inject large amounts of black carbon (BC) particles into the atmosphere, which can reach the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) and cause strong radiative forcing. During a 14-month period of observations on board a passenger aircraft flying between Europe and North America, we found frequent and widespread biomass burning (BB) plumes, influencing 16 of 160 flight hours in the LMS. The average BC mass concentrations in these plumes (∼140 ng·m$^{-3}$, standard temperature and pressure) were over 20 times higher than the background concentration (∼6 ng·m$^{-3}$) with more than 100-fold enhanced peak values (up to ∼720 ng·m$^{-3}$). In the LMS, nearly all BC particles were covered with a thick coating. The average mass equivalent diameter of the BC particle cores was ∼120 nm with a mean coating thickness of ∼150 nm in the BB plume and ∼90 nm with a coating of ∼125 nm in the background. In a BB plume that was encountered twice, we also found a high diameter growth rate of ∼1 nm·h$^{-1}$ due to the BC particle coatings. The observed high concentrations and thick coatings of BC particles demonstrate that wildfires can induce strong local heating in the LMS and may have a significant influence on the regional radiative forcing of climate.

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Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000089336
Veröffentlicht am 10.01.2019
Originalveröffentlichung
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1806868115
Scopus
Zitationen: 2
Web of Science
Zitationen: 3
Coverbild
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphärische Spurenstoffe und Fernerkundung (IMK-ASF)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Jahr 2018
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0027-8424, 1091-6490
urn:nbn:de:swb:90-893360
KITopen-ID: 1000089336
HGF-Programm 12.03.01 (POF III, LK 01)
Erschienen in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Band 115
Heft 50
Seiten E11595–E11603
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 26.11.2018
Schlagworte black carbon, biomass burning, climate change, high altitude, mixing state
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Scopus
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