Down-facing surfaces are one of the most challenging features in metal parts produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). A combination of reasons, primary of which are residual stresses and overheating cause these features to have the worst surface finish and dimensional accuracy of all LPBF surfaces. In order to examine this phenomenon, a Design of Experiments (DoE) study is conducted for three different inclination angles, namely 45°, 35° and 25° and for two different layer thicknesses of 60 µm and 90 µm. The results from the DoE are used to establish quadratic regression equations that can be used to predict the quality marks of surface roughness and the relative dimensional error.This fundamental investigation helps to explain the reasons for the major defects in down-facing surfaces of parts produced with Ti-6AL-4 V material, namely the dross formation and attempts to improve the predictability of quality within the region. Further to the establishment of the quadratic equations, a discussion is conducted on the thermomechanical processes involved in the mechanism of dross formation and explanations are given on the reasons behind the observed physical phenomena. ... mehrThe trend of the propagation of (Root Mean Square) RMS Surface roughness (Sq) and the relative dimensional error with respect to the Volumetric Energy Density (VED) is discussed in detail. The respective quadratic equations are then tested by a second round of validation prints, and the results confirm the feasibility of the developed quadratic models to accurately predict process outcomes especially when operating near the suggested optimal printing zones. The high roughness of low VED printing is attributed to the formation of ‘inverse mushroom’ structures, and the low roughness of high VED surface is attributed to the formation of large flat regions formed as adjacent meltpools that can fuse together at various locations.