High time resolution in scattering analysis of thin films allows for determination of thermal conductivity by transient pump-probe detection of dissipation of laser-induced heating, TDXTS. We describe an approach that analyses the picosecond-resolved lattice parameter reaction of a gold transducer layer on pulsed laser heating to determine the thermal conductivity of layered structures below the transducer. A detailed modeling of the cooling kinetics by a Laplace-domain approach allows for discerning effects of conductivity and thermal interface resistance as well as basic depth information. The thermal expansion of the clamped gold film can be calibrated to absolute temperature change and effects of plastic deformation are discriminated. The method is demonstrated on two extreme examples of phononic barriers, isotopically modulated silicon multilayers with very small acoustic impedance mismatch and silicon-molybdenum multilayers, which show a high resistivity.