In many tokamak and stellarator experiments around the globe that are investigating energy production via controlled thermonuclear fusion, electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH&CD) are used for plasma start-up, heating, non-inductive current drive and MHD stability control. ECH will be the first auxiliary heating method used on ITER. Megawatt-class, continuous wave (CW) gyrotrons are employed as high-power millimeter (mm)-wave sources. The present review reports on the worldwide state-of-the-art of high-power gyrotrons. Their successful development during the past years changed ECH from a minor to a major heating method. After a general introduction of the various functions of ECH&CD in fusion physics, especially for ITER, Section 2 will explain the fast-wave gyrotron interaction principle. Section 3 discusses innovations on the components of modern long-pulse fusion gyrotrons (magnetron injection electron gun (MIG), beam tunnel, cavity, quasi-optical output coupler, synthetic diamond output window, single-stage depressed collector) and auxiliary components (superconducting magnets, gyrotron diagnostics, high-power calorimetric dummy loads). ... mehrSection 4 deals with present megawatt-class gyrotrons for ITER, W7-X, LHD, EAST, KSTAR and JT-60SA, and also includes tubes for moderate pulse length machines as, ASDEX-U, DIII-D, HL-2A, TCV, QUEST and GAMMA-10. In Section 5 the development of future advanced fusion gyrotrons is discussed. These are tubes with higher frequencies for DEMO, multi-frequency (multi-purpose) gyrotrons, stepwise frequency tunable tubes for plasma stabilization, injection-locked and coaxial-cavity multi-megawatt gyrotrons, as well as sub-THz gyrotrons for collective Thomson scattering (CTS). Efficiency enhancement via multi-stage depressed collectors, fast oscillation recovery methods and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) will be discussed at the end of this section.