Adding nanoparticles to polymers improves the properties significantly, such as UV resistance or even electrical conductivity. The growing use of these composite materials leads to a higher amount in disposals eventually. Within the circular economy there are two ways of handling: the recycling by shredding and reuse and the thermal treatment by combustion in municipal waste incinerators. In both cases there is nearly no information about the behavior of the nanoparticles and possible release scenarios. In this study a laboratory burner is used as a flexible set up to incinerate the polymer nanocomposites. The flue gas containing a complex mixture of combustion gases and particles is characterized by different particle analysers, PAH analysis, VOC analysis and TEM. The biological impact is studied by using a VITROCELL Automated ALI exposure station. Hereby, cells of the adenocarcino cell line A549 as well as a reconstituted bronchial epithelium (MucilAir, Epithelix) were exposed for 4 hours to the aerosols emitted from the combustion process. Within the exposure process, cells were exposed to the native aerosol, an aerosol under conditions to increase particle deposition via high voltage as well as a filtered aerosol, and therefore the sole gaseous phase. ... mehrFurthermore, each exposure included a so-called clean air control, where cells where exposed to filtered air. The exposure was followed by a 21 h post-incubation before the cytotoxic effects were determined via LDH-release. To reveal if possible adverse effects are caused by the used nano-scaled filling material, all used nanomaterials did also undergo the same combustion process as a single material. Cytotoxicity studies showed no increased cytotoxic effects after the combustion of the sole nano-scaled filling materials. However, combustion of PE containing materials resulted in an enhanced LDH-release, and therefore cytotoxicity, in both cell culture models. Since no difference between exposures of unfiltered and filtered aerosols was apparent, it suggested that the observed cytotoxicity is due to the combustion induced gaseous phase.