# Impact of particle size, oxidation state and capping agent of different cerium dioxide nanoparticles on the phosphate-induced transformations at different pH and concentration

Romer, I.; Briffa, S. M.; Dasilva, Y. A. R.; Hapiuk, D.; Trouillet, Vanessa; Palmer, R. E.; Valsami-Jones, E.

##### Abstract:
The potential hazard posed by nanomaterials can be significantly influenced by transformations which these materials undergo during their lifecycle, from manufacturing through to disposal. The transformations may depend on the nanomaterials’ own physicochemical properties as well as the environment they are exposed to. This study focuses on the mechanisms of transformation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO$_{2}$ NPs) in laboratory experiments which simulate potential scenarios in which the NPs are exposed to phosphate-bearing media. We have experimented with the transformation of four different kinds of CeO$_{2}$ NPs, in order to investigate the effects of nanoparticle size, capping agent (three were uncapped and one was PVP capped) and oxidation state (two consisted mostly of Ce$^{4+}$ and two were a mix of Ce$^{3+}$/Ce$^{4+}$). They were exposed to a reaction solution containing KH$_{2}$PO$_{4}$, citric acid and ascorbic acid at pH values of 2.3, 5.5 and 12.3, and concentrations of 1mM and 5mM. The transformations were followed by UV-vis, zeta potential and XRD measurements, which were taken after 7 and 21 days, and by transmission electron microscopy after 21 days. ... mehr

 Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Energiespeichersysteme (IAM-ESS) Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz Jahr 2019 Sprache Englisch Identifikator ISSN: 1932-6203 KITopen-ID: 1000096383 Erschienen in PLOS ONE Band 14 Heft 6 Seiten Art.-Nr.: e0217483 Schlagworte 2017-018-019655 XPS Nachgewiesen in Scopus
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