High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to improve performance and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. However, whether the body’s adaptation to an exhausting short-term HIIT is reflected in the resting human metabolome has not been examined so far. Therefore, a randomized controlled intervention study was performed to investigate the effect of a ten-day HIIT on the resting urinary metabolome of young active men. Fasting spot urine was collected before (−1 day) and after (+1 day; +4 days) the training intervention and 65 urinary metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Metabolite concentrations were normalized to urinary creatinine and subjected to univariate statistical analysis. One day after HIIT, no overall change in resting urinary metabolome, except a significant difference with decreasing means in urinary hypoxanthine concentration, was documented in the experimental group. As hypoxanthine is related to purine degradation, lower resting urinary hypoxanthine levels may indicate a training-induced adaptation in purine nucleotide metabolism.