The background information related to health effects and damage caused to ecosystems by PM atmospheric pollution, particularly by its fine fraction, will be summarisedCurrent international policy instruments for reducing airborne emissions and, consequently, improving air quality, will be reviewed. In particular the EU clean air package and the UN/ECE initiatives under the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP), including the recentlyadopted Long-term Strategy, will be considered.
The air policy initiatives by EFCA related to improve air quality in relation to PM and its ultrafine fraction/Black Carbon will be described and assessed.
Combustion of all kinds produces PM pollution, including its ultrafine fraction (UFP). Carbonaceous particles in form of Black Carbon (BC) and Organic Aerosols (OA) are of particular concern. UFPs are also formed as secondary pollutants. The latter have substantial influence on particle formation and their growth generates half of the cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG), however, are underestimated as pollutants by the climate policy community and deserve to be treated as equally important. ... mehrUFPs play an important role in policy to reduce toxic air pollution and climate forcers.
The series of UFP Symposia has provided strong evidence of impact, and information on sources and effective control techniques. EFCA therefore believes it is now timely to consider policy aspect. It fully supports UFP/BC regulation, including new ceilings in the EU NEC Directive and the revised Gothenburg Protocol under the LRTAP. Moreover, a new metric is urgently needed for UFPs, expressed in weight and by number of particles. Also, dual policy, integrating cleaner air and climate protection criteria, to combat UFPs can be more effective and generate co-benefits for both.
The role of integrated policy, as opposed to the current practice of separate sectoral policies in combatting air pollution will be considered with reference to concrete examples, including from the energy system.