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Ammonium nitrate particles formed in upper troposphere from ground ammonia sources during Asian monsoons

Höpfner, Michael; Ungermann, J.; Borrmann, S.; Wagner, R.; Spang, R.; Riese, M.; Stiller, G.; Appel, O.; Batenburg, A. M.; Bucci, S.; Cairo, F.; Dragoneas, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Hünig, A.; Johansson, S.; Krasauskas, L.; Legras, B.; Leisner, T.; Mahnke, C.; Möhler, O.; ... mehr

Abstract:
The rise of ammonia emissions in Asia is predicted to increase radiative cooling and air pollution by forming ammonium nitrate particles in the lower troposphere. There is, however, a severe lack of knowledge about ammonia and ammoniated aerosol particles in the upper troposphere and their possible effects on the formation of clouds. Here we employ satellite observations and high-altitude aircraft measurements, combined with atmospheric trajectory simulations and cloud-chamber experiments, to demonstrate the presence of ammonium nitrate particles and also track the source of the ammonia that forms into the particles. We found that during the Asian monsoon period, solid ammonium nitrate particles are surprisingly ubiquitous in the upper troposphere from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Western Pacific - even as early as in 1997. We show that this ammonium nitrate aerosol layer is fed by convection that transports large amounts of ammonia from surface sources into the upper troposphere. Impurities of ammonium sulfate allow the crystallization of ammonium nitrate even in the conditions, such as a high relative humidity, that prevail in the upper troposphere. ... mehr

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Postprint §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000096927
Frei zugänglich ab 09.07.2020
Originalveröffentlichung
DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0385-8
Scopus
Zitationen: 13
Web of Science
Zitationen: 11
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphärische Aerosolforschung (IMK-AAF)
Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung - Atmosphärische Spurenstoffe und Fernerkundung (IMK-ASF)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2019
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1752-0894, 1752-0908
KITopen-ID: 1000096927
HGF-Programm 12.04.03 (POF III, LK 01)
Stratospheric Ozone and Climate Change
Erschienen in Nature geoscience
Band 12
Seiten 608–612
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 08.07.2019
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Scopus
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