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Calcined chicken eggshell electrode for battery and supercapacitor applications

Minakshi, Manickam; Higley, Stephen; Baur, Christian; Mitchell, David R. G.; Jones, Robert T.; Fichtner, Maximilian

Abstract:
Biowaste eggshell can be used as a cathode while in its calcined formand it is found to be suitable as an anode in an electrochemical cell. This not only enables energy to be stored reversibly but also achieves waste management and sustainability goals by redirecting material away from landfill. Biowaste eggshell comprises 94% calcium carbonate (CaCO₃; calcite), an attractive divalent ion source as a viable option for energy storage. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analyses of the calcined (thermally decomposed) biowaste eggshell show that CaO has been formed and the reaction is topotactic. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of the textural relationship show that the thermal decomposition of calcite resulted in a change in morphology. High-resolution XPS spectra of the C 1s core level from the CaCO₃ and CaO shows that there is a chemical difference in the carbon environments and the total atomic fraction of Ca for each sample with that of carbonate and oxygen varies. In a three-electrode configuration, a working electrode of CaCO₃ is found to be electrochemically active in the positive region, whereas a CaO electrode is active in the negative region. ... mehr

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Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000098338
Veröffentlicht am 18.09.2019
Originalveröffentlichung
DOI: 10.1039/c9ra04289j
Scopus
Zitationen: 2
Web of Science
Zitationen: 1
Coverbild
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Helmholtz-Institut Ulm (HIU)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Jahr 2019
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2046-2069
KITopen-ID: 1000098338
Erschienen in RSC Advances
Band 9
Heft 46
Seiten 26981–26995
Nachgewiesen in Web of Science
Scopus
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