The description of physical processes with many-particle systems is a key approach to the modeling of countless physical systems. In storage rings, where ultrarelativistic particles are agglomerated in dense bunches, the measurement of their phase-space distribution (PSD) is of paramount importance: at any time the PSD not only determines the complete space-time evolution but also provides fundamental performance characteristics for storage ring operation. Here, we demonstrate a non-destructive tomographic imaging technique for the 2D longitudinal PSD of ultrarelativistic electron bunches. For this purpose, we utilize a unique setup, which streams turn-by-turn near-field measurements of bunch profiles at MHz repetition rates. To demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we induce a non-equilibrium state and show, that the PSD microstructuring as well as the PSD dynamics can be observed in great detail with an unprecedented resolution. Our approach offers a pathway to control ultrashort bunches and supports, as one example, the development of compact accelerators with low energy footprints.