Laser polishing of metals consists of irradiating the part’s surface with a laser beam, thus generating a molten layer that is redistributed and resolidified to create a surface with reduced roughness. However, the process is also characterized by an instantaneously formation of heat-affected zones with consequent microstructural changes that influences the mechanical properties. In order to understand the microstructural evolution during laser polishing of Ti-6Al-4V laser-based powder bed fusion samples, a thermal model is applied in the current study to predict the dimensions of the melted zones and the heat-affected areas. Furthermore, the results obtained through the simulations are discussed and compared to the experimental data, thereby establishing the validity of the process models. Finally, the experimental studies also include the evaluation of the material hardness and residual stresses after laser polishing.