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4D Printing at the Microscale

Spiegel, Christoph A. 1,2; Hippler, Marc 3,4; Münchinger, Alexander 4; Bastmeyer, Martin 3,5; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher 2; Wegener, Martin 1,4; Blasco, Eva 1,2
1 Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
2 Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie (ITCP), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
3 Zoologisches Institut (ZOO), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
4 Institut für Angewandte Physik (APH), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)
5 Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


3D printing of adaptive and dynamic structures, also known as 4D printing, is one of the key challenges in contemporary materials science. The additional dimension refers to the ability of 3D printed structures to change their properties—for example, shape—over time in a controlled fashion as the result of external stimulation. Within the last years, significant efforts have been undertaken in the development of new responsive materials for printing at the macroscale. However, 4D printing at the microscale is still in its early stages. Thus, this progress report will focus on emerging materials for 4D printing at the microscale as well as their challenges and potential applications. Hydrogels and liquid crystalline and composite materials have been identified as the main classes of materials representing the state of the art of the growing field. For each type of material, the challenges and critical barriers in the material design and their performance in 4D microprinting are discussed. Importantly, further necessary strategies are proposed to overcome the limitations of the current approaches and move toward their application in fields such as biomedicine, microrobotics, or optics.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000105073
Veröffentlicht am 16.01.2020
DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201907615
Zitationen: 138
Zitationen: 152
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Angewandte Physik (APH)
Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT)
Institut für Technische Chemie und Polymerchemie (ITCP)
Universität Karlsruhe (TH) – Interfakultative Einrichtungen (Interfakultative Einrichtungen)
Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics (KSOP)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 1616-301X, 1616-3028
KITopen-ID: 1000105073
HGF-Programm 43.23.01 (POF III, LK 01) Advanced Optical Lithography+Microscopy
Erschienen in Advanced functional materials
Verlag Wiley-VCH Verlag
Band 30
Heft 26
Seiten Art.Nr. 1907615
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 19.12.2019
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
Web of Science
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