Background and Objectives. Most performance theories were tested under controlled laboratory settings and offer therefore only limited transferability to real-life situations. E-sport competitions offer a relatively controllable while at the same time competitive setting, and our aim was to examine different influencing factors on competitive performance. Design and Methods. Salivary cortisol was measured immediately before, after, and 30 minutes after a game of 23 computer players during e-sport tournaments. The players answered the Flow Short Scale, which consists of the two subdimensions “flow experience” and “anxiety” subsequent to their game. The performance was assessed by the result of each player’s game (win or loss). Results. Mean cortisol levels increased significantly during the game but response patterns were inconsistent. Winners and losers differed significantly in anxiety with winners showing higher anxiety levels. After dividing the sample into three groups of different cortisol response patterns, significant differences in performance and anxiety were found, with low to moderate levels of cortisol being associated with the highest performance and anxiety. ... mehrConclusions. A low to moderate physiological arousal and a simultaneously high level of anxiety represent a favorable state for achieving optimal performance during e-sports. Anxiety seems to exert a stronger influence on performance than physiological arousal.