This review describes major advances in the use of functionalized molecular metal oxides (polyoxometalates, POMs) as water oxidation catalysts under electrochemical conditions. The fundamentals of POM-based water oxidation are described, together with a brief overview of general approaches to designing POM water oxidation catalysts. Next, the use of POMs for homogeneous, solution-phasewater oxidation is described togetherwith a summary of theoretical studies shedding light on the POM-WOC mechanism. This is followed by a discussion of heterogenization of POMs on electrically conductive substrates for technologically more relevant application studies. The stability of POM water oxidation catalysts is discussed, using select examples where detailed data is already available. The review finishes with an outlook on future perspectives and emerging themes in electrocatalytic polyoxometalate-based water oxidation research.