Trichosporonaceae incorporates six genera of physiologically and ecologically diverse fungi including both human pathogenic taxa as well as yeasts of biotechnological interest, especially those oleagenic taxa that accumulate large amounts of single cell oils (SCOs). Here, we have undertaken comparative genomic analysis of thirty-three members of the family with a view to gain insight into the molecular determinants underlying their lifestyles and niche specializations. Phylogenomic analysis revealed potential misidentification of three strains which could impact subsequent analyses. Evaluation of the predicted proteins coding sequences showed that the free-living members of the family harbour greater numbers of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZYmes), metallo- and serine peptidases compared to their host-associated counterparts. Phylogenies of selected lipid biosynthetic enzymes encoded in the genomes of the studied strains revealed disparate evolutionary histories for some proteins inconsistent with the core genome phylogeny. However, the documented oleagenic members distinctly cluster based on the constitution of the upstream regulatory regions of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP-citrate synthase (ACS) and isocitrate dehydrogenase [NADP] (ICDH), which are among the major proteins in the lipid biosynthetic pathway of these yeasts, suggesting a possible pattern in the regulation of these genes.