Alongside electrical loads, it is known that temperature has a strong influence on battery behavior and lifetime. Investigations have mainly been performed at homogeneous temperatures and non-homogeneous conditions in single cells have at best been simulated. This publication presents the development of a methodology and experimental setup to investigate the influence of thermal boundary conditions during the operation of lithium-ion cells. In particular, spatially inhomogeneous and transient thermal boundary conditions and periodical electrical cycles were superimposed in different combinations. This required a thorough design of the thermal boundary conditions applied to the cells. Unlike in other contributions that rely on placing cells in a climatic chamber to control ambient air temperature, here the cell surfaces and tabs were directly connected to individual cooling and heating plates. This improves the control of the cells’ internal temperature, even with high currents accompanied by strong internal heat dissipation. The aging process over a large number of electrical cycles is presented by means of discharge capacity and impedance spectra determined in repeated intermediate characterizations. ... mehrThe influence of spatial temperature gradients and temporal temperature changes on the cyclic degradation is revealed. It appears that the overall temperature level is indeed a decisive parameter for capacity fade during cyclic aging, while the intensity of a temperature gradient is not as essential. Furthermore, temperature changes can have a substantial impact and potentially lead to stronger degradation than spatial inhomogeneities.