Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are frequently used in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. In GBCAs gadolinium (Gd) is present in a bound chelated form. Gadolinium is a rare-earth element, which is normally not present in human body. Though the blood elimination half-life of contrast agents is about 90 minutes, recent studies demonstrated that some tissues retain gadolinium, which might further pose a health threat due to toxic effects of free gadolinium. It is known that the bone tissue can serve as a gadolinium depot, but so far only bulk measurements were performed. Here we present a summary of experiments in which for the first time we mapped gadolinium in bone biopsy from a male patient with idiopathic osteoporosis (without indication of renal impairment), who received MRI 8 months prior to biopsy. In our studies performed by means of synchrotron radiation induced micro- and submicro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-XRF), gadolinium was detected in human cortical bone tissue. The distribution of gadolinium displays a specific accumulation pattern. Correlation of elemental maps obtained at ANKA synchrotron with qBEI images (quantitative backscattered electron imaging) allowed assignment of Gd structures to the histological bone structures. ... mehrFollow-up beamtimes at ESRF and Diamond Light Source using submicro-SR-XRF allowed resolving thin Gd structures in cortical bone, as well as correlating them with calcium and zinc.