The Wendelstein 7-X Thomson scattering diagnostic was upgraded to transiently achieve kilohertz sampling rates combined with adjustable measuring times. The existing Nd:YAG lasers are employed to repetitively emit "bursts", i.e. multiple laser pulses in a short time interval. Appropriately timing bursts in the three available lasers, up to twelve evenly spaced consecutive measurements per burst are possible. The pulse-to-pulse increment within a burst can be tuned from 2 μs to 33. ms (500 kHz-30 Hz). Additionally, an event trigger system was developed to synchronize the burst Thomson scattering measurements to plasma events. Exemplary, a case of fast electron density and temperature evolution after cryogenic H2 pellet injection is presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the method.