During professional shooting tournaments, which typically last multiple hours, athletes must stay focused at all times in order to perform at their highest levels. Sustaining attention over extended periods of time becomes mentally exhausting. Exerting mental effort, which is also called self-control, often leads to low levels of perceived self-control strength, which ultimately can impair shooting performance. In the present study, we tested the assumption that the level of self-reported self-control strength decreases over the course of a 1-hour shooting task measured twice during a regular training day and separated by a 2-hour break. Additionally, we assumed that shooting performance would be linked with fluctuations in self-control. A total of 21 shooters took part in this study and were asked to perform a series of 10 shots at a standardized target, five times in the morning and five times in the afternoon (i.e., 100 shots total). The participants also reported their perceived self-control strength at the baseline (prior to the start of the morning session as well as the afternoon session) and after a series of 10 shots each in the morning and afternoon (i.e., measurements in total). ... mehrIn line with our hypotheses, we observed that self-control diminished with the number of shots performed, and that self-control could explain shooting performance. Additionally, these observations could explain the difference in shooting performance between elite and sub-elite athletes. The results suggest that the perception of self-control strength is highly important for optimal shooting performance. Practical implications are discussed.