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Surface-Energy-Balance Closure over Land: A Review

Mauder, Matthias 1; Foken, Thomas; Cuxart, Joan
1 Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


Quantitative knowledge of the surface energy balance is essential for the prediction of weather and climate. However, a multitude of studies from around the world indicate that the turbulent heat fluxes are generally underestimated using eddy-covariance measurements, and hence, the energy balance is not closed. This energy-balance-closure problem, which has been heavily covered in the literature for more than 25 years, is the topic of the present review, in which we provide an overview of the potential reason for the lack of closure. We demonstrate the effects of the diurnal cycle on the energy balance closure, and address questions with regard to the partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and the latent fluxes, and whether the magnitude of the flux underestimation can be predicted based on other variables typically measured at micrometeorological stations. Remaining open questions are discussed and potential avenues for future research on this topic are laid out. Integrated studies, combining multi-tower experiments and scale-crossing, spatially-resolving lidar and airborne measurements with high-resolution large-eddy simulations, are considered to be of critical importance for enhancing our understanding of the underlying transport processes in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Postprint §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000120605
Veröffentlicht am 25.06.2020
DOI: 10.1007/s10546-020-00529-6
Zitationen: 120
Web of Science
Zitationen: 109
Zitationen: 138
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung – Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU)
Universität Karlsruhe (TH) – Interfakultative Einrichtungen (Interfakultative Einrichtungen)
KIT-Zentrum Klima und Umwelt (ZKU)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 0006-8314, 1573-1472
KITopen-ID: 1000120605
HGF-Programm 12.02.05 (POF III, LK 01) Atmospheric Exchange Processes
Erschienen in Boundary layer meteorology
Verlag Springer
Band 177
Seiten 395–426
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 30.05.2020
Schlagwörter Eddy covariance, Energy balance closure, Large-eddy simulation, Secondary circulations, Surface energy balance
Nachgewiesen in Scopus
Web of Science
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