We developed a versatile integrated control and readout instrument for experiments with superconducting quantum bits (qubits), based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. Using this platform, we perform measurement-based, closed-loop feedback operations with 428 ns platform latency. The feedback capability is instrumental in realizing active reset initialization of the qubit into the ground state in a time much shorter than its energy relaxation time T1. We show experimental results demonstrating reset of a fluxonium qubit with 99.4 % fidelity, using a readout-and-drive pulse sequence approximately 1.5 µs long. Compared to passive ground state initialization through thermalization, with the time constant given by T1 = 80 µs, the use of the FPGA-based platform allows us to improve both the fidelity and the time of the qubit initialization by an order of magnitude.