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Comparing empirical and model-based approaches for calculating dynamic grid emission factors: An application to CO$_{2}$-minimizing storage dispatch in Germany

Braeuer, Fritz; Finck, Rafael; McKenna, Russell

Abstract:
As one possibility to increase flexibility, battery storage systems (BSS) will play a key role in the decarbonization of the energy system. The emissions-intensity of grid electricity becomes more important as these BSSs are more widely employed. In this paper, we introduce a novel data basis for the determination of the energy system’s CO$_{2}$ emissions, which is a match between the ENTSO-E database and the EUTL databases. We further postulate four different dynamic emission factors (EF) to determine the hourly CO$_{2}$ emissions caused through a change in electricity demand: the average emission factor (AEF), the marginal power mix (MPM), the marginal system response (MSR) and an energy-model-derived marginal power plant (MPP). For generic and battery storage systems, a linear optimization on two levels optimizes the economic and environmental storage dispatch for a set of 50 small and medium enterprises in Germany. The four different emission factors have different signaling effects. The AEF leads to the lowest CO$_{2}$ reduction and allows for roughly two daily cycles. The other EFs show a higher volatility, which leads to a higher utilization of the storage system from 3.4 to 5.4 daily cycles. ... mehr

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Volltext §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000121280
Veröffentlicht am 14.07.2020
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)
Publikationstyp Forschungsbericht/Preprint
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2196-7296
KITopen-ID: 1000121280
Verlag KIT, Karlsruhe
Umfang 22 S.
Serie Working Paper Series in Production and Energy ; 44
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 20.02.2020
Schlagwörter Dynamic emission factor, Empirical emission factors, CO$_{2}$-minimizing dispatch, Energy storage system, German industry, CO$_{2}$-emissions
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