Color three-dimensional (3D) printing is an advanced 3D printing technique for reproducing colorful 3D objects, but it still has color accuracy issues. Plastic-based color 3D printing is a common color 3D printing process, and most factors affecting its color reproduction quality have been studied from printing materials to parameters in the fixed consecutive layers. In this work, and combined with variable stair thickness, the colored layer sequence in sliced layers of a specific 3D color test chart is deliberately changed to test the effects of colored layer features on its final color reproduction quality. Meanwhile, the colorimetric measurement and image acquisition of printed 3D color test charts are both achieved under standard conditions. Results clearly show that the chromatic aberration values and mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values of color samples have a significant correlation with the colored stair thickness, but both did not display a linear relationship. The correlation trends between colored layer sequence and the above two indexes are more localized to the colored stair thickness. Combined with color structural similarity (SSIM) maps analysis, a comprehensive discussion between colored layer features and color reproduction quality of color 3D printing is presented, providing key insights for developing further accurate numerical models.