Amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are major wheat allergens and they are also implicated in causing non-celiac gluten sensitivity and worsening other inflammatory conditions. With only few studies on ATI contents in different Triticum species available so far, we developed a targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method based on stable isotope dilution assays to quantitate the 13 most important ATIs in a well-defined sample set of eight cultivars of common wheat and durum wheat (modern species), as well as spelt, emmer and einkorn (ancient species) grown at three locations in Germany, respectively. Only few ATIs with low contents were detected in einkorn. In contrast, spelt had the highest total ATI contents. Emmer and common wheat had similar total ATI contents, with durum wheat having lower contents than common wheat. Due to the lack of correlation, it was not possible to estimate ATI contents based on crude protein contents. The wheat species had a higher influence on ATI contents than the growing location and the heritability of this trait was high. Despite comparatively low intra-species variability, some cultivars were identified that may be promising candidates for breeding for naturally low ATI contents.