Inferring phylogenetic trees for individual homologous gene families is difficult because alignments are often too short, and thus contain insufficient signal, while substitution models inevitably fail to capture the complexity of the evolutionary processes. To overcome these challenges, species-tree-aware methods also leverage information from a putative species tree. However, only few methods are available that implement a full likelihood framework or account for horizontal gene transfers. Furthermore, these methods often require expensive data preprocessing (e.g., computing bootstrap trees) and rely on approximations and heuristics that limit the degree of tree space exploration. Here, we present GeneRax, the first maximum likelihood species-tree-aware phylogenetic inference software. It simultaneously accounts for substitutions at the sequence level as well as gene level events, such as duplication, transfer, and loss relying on established maximum likelihood optimization algorithms. GeneRax can infer rooted phylogenetic trees for multiple gene families, directly from the per-gene sequence alignments and a rooted, yet undated, species tree. ... mehrWe show that compared with competing tools, on simulated data GeneRax infers trees that are the closest to the true tree in 90% of the simulations in terms of relative Robinson–Foulds distance. On empirical data sets, GeneRax is the fastest among all tested methods when starting from aligned sequences, and it infers trees with the highest likelihood score, based on our model. GeneRax completed tree inferences and reconciliations for 1,099 Cyanobacteria families in 8 min on 512 CPU cores. Thus, its parallelization scheme enables large-scale analyses. GeneRax is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/BenoitMorel/GeneRax (last accessed June 17, 2020).