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Intracellular sodium changes in cancer cells using a microcavity array-based bioreactor system and sodium triple-quantum mr signal

Kleimaier, D.; Schepkin, V.; Nies, Cordula; Gottwald, Eric; Schad, L. R.

The sodium triple-quantum (TQ) magnetic resonance (MR) signal created by interactions of sodium ions with macromolecules has been demonstrated to be a valuable biomarker for cell viability. The aim of this study was to monitor a cellular response using the sodium TQ signal during inhibition of Na/K-ATPase in living cancer cells (HepG2). The cells were dynamically investigated after exposure to 1 mM ouabain or K$^{+}$-free medium for 60 min using an MR-compatible bioreactor system. An improved TQ time proportional phase incrementation (TQTPPI) pulse sequence with almost four times TQ signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain allowed for conducting experiments with 12–14 × 10$^{6}$ cells using a 9.4 T MR scanner. During cell intervention experiments, the sodium TQ signal increased to 138.9 ± 4.1% and 183.4 ± 8.9% for 1 mM ouabain (n = 3) and K$^{+}$-free medium (n = 3), respectively. During reperfusion with normal medium, the sodium TQ signal further increased to 169.2 ± 5.3% for the ouabain experiment, while it recovered to 128.5 ± 6.8% for the K$^{+}$-free experiment. These sodium TQ signal increases agree with an influx of sodium ions during Na/K-ATPase inhibition and hence a reduced cell viability. ... mehr

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Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Institut für Funktionelle Grenzflächen (IFG)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsjahr 2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2227-9717
KITopen-ID: 1000125813
Erschienen in Processes
Band 8
Heft 10
Seiten Art.-Nr.: 1267
Schlagwörter sodium NMR; electric quadrupole interaction; sodium triple-quantum signal; TQTPPI; 3D cell culture; bioreactor system; microcavity array; Na/K-ATPase; organotypic culture
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