By-products of fruits and vegetables like apple pomace can serve as techno-functional ingredients in foods. Due to their physicochemical properties, e.g., viscosity, water absorption, or oil-binding, food by-products can modify the texture and sensory perception of products like yogurts and baked goods. It is known that, by extrusion processing, the properties of by-products can be altered. For example, by thermo-mechanical treatment, the capacity of food by-products to increase viscosity is improved. However, the mechanism and involved components leading to the viscosity increase are unknown. Therefore, the complex viscosity of apple pomace dispersions and the involved fractions as pectin (a major part of the water-soluble fraction), water-soluble and water-insoluble fraction, were measured. In the investigated range, an increase in the pectin yield and water solubility was observed with increasing thermo-mechanical treatment by extrusion processing. However, pectin and water-soluble cell wall components had only a limited effect on the complex viscosity of apple pomace dispersions. The insoluble fraction (particles) were investigated regarding their swelling behavior and influence on the complex viscosity. ... mehrAn intensification of thermo-mechanical treatment resulted in increasing swelling behavior.