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Between abundance and constraints: The natural resource equation of Asia’s diverging, higher-income city models

Rode, P.; Gomes, A.; Adeel, M.; Sajjad, F.; Koch, A. 1; Murshed, S. M. 1
1 European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)


This paper investigates how natural resource conditions impact the physical development of cities and how, once built, the urban spatial structure leads to different patterns of resource use. The point of departure for this research is the common “resource urbanisms” assumption that cities are directly affected by the availability and costs of natural resources, and that in turn, different urbanisms result in substantial differences in resource use and consequent impact on the environment. Considering extreme and divergent, higher-income urban models of Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong and Singapore, the paper focusses on two resources, land and energy, and the case of building cooling and transport energy demand. The research uses a mixed methods approach which includes qualitative methods such as expert interviews, analysis of planning documents and historic planning decisions, alongside quantitative methods such as remote sensing, GIS and data analysis and energy modelling. The paper suggests that land availability is a major driver of urban form while energy prices may play a secondary role. It also finds that urban form-induced energy efficiencies for transport and cooling energy diverge in the four cities by a factor of five and two, respectively.

Verlagsausgabe §
DOI: 10.5445/IR/1000126496
Veröffentlicht am 23.11.2020
DOI: 10.3390/land9110426
Zitationen: 2
Zitationen: 1
Cover der Publikation
Zugehörige Institution(en) am KIT Universität Karlsruhe (TH) – Einrichtungen in Verbindung mit der Universität (Einrichtungen in Verbindung mit der Universität)
European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER)
Publikationstyp Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Publikationsmonat/-jahr 11.2020
Sprache Englisch
Identifikator ISSN: 2073-445X
KITopen-ID: 1000126496
Erschienen in Land
Verlag MDPI
Band 9
Heft 11
Seiten Art. Nr.: 426
Vorab online veröffentlicht am 31.10.2020
Schlagwörter urbanism, urban form, building typology, transport, infrastructure, cooling energy, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Singapore
Nachgewiesen in Dimensions
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