Traditional electrode manufacturing for lithium-ion batteries is well established, reliable, and has already reached high processing speeds and improvements in production costs. For modern electric vehicles, however, the need for batteries with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities at cell level is increasing; and new production concepts are required for this purpose. During the last decade, laser processing of battery materials emerged as a promising processing tool for either improving manufacturing flexibility and product reliability or enhancing battery performances. Laser cutting and welding already reached a high level of maturity and it is obvious that in the near future they will become frequently implemented in battery production lines. This review focuses on laser texturing of electrode materials due to its high potential for significantly enhancing battery performances beyond state-of-the-art. Technical approaches and processing strategies for new electrode architectures and concepts will be presented and discussed with regard to energy and power density requirements. The boost of electrochemical performances due to laser texturing of energy storage materials is currently proven at the laboratory scale. ... mehrHowever, promising developments in high-power, ultrafast laser technology may push laser structuring of batteries to the next technical readiness level soon. For demonstration in pilot lines adapted to future cell production, process upscaling regarding footprint area and processing speed are the main issues as well as the economic aspects with regards to CapEx amortisation and the benefits resulting from the next generation battery.
This review begins with an introduction of the threedimensional battery and thick film concept, made possible by laser texturing. Laser processing of electrode components,
namely current collectors, anodes, and cathodes will be presented. Different types of electrode architectures such as holes, grids, and lines, were generated; their impact on battery performances are illustrated. The usage of high-energy materials, which are on the threshold of commercialization, is highlighted. Battery performance increase is triggered by controlling lithium-ion diffusion kinetics in liquid electrolyte filled porous electrodes. This review concludes with a discussion of various laser parameter tasks for process upscaling in a new type of extreme manufacturing.