With increasing energy density the safety and the thermal management of Li-ion batteries is becoming more and more important, because the thermal runaway can cause an ignition or even explosion of the battery with simultaneous release of toxic gases. In the last nine years we have established battery calorimetry as a powerful and versatile electrochemical-thermal characterization technique, which allows both advancements for the thermal management and the safety of batteries. With six adiabatic Accelerating Rate Calorimeters (ARC) of different sizes and two sensitive Tian-Calvet calorimeters, all of them combined with cyclers, the IAM-AWP now operates Europe’s largest battery calorimeter center, which enables the evaluation of thermodynamic, thermal and safety data on material, cell and pack level under quasiadiabatic and isoperibolic environments for both normal and abuse conditions (thermal, electrical, mechanical). It will be shown how sophisticated battery calorimetry allows finding new and quantitative correlations between different critical thermally and safety related parameters that will help to design safer systems. For an optimized design with regard to safety cells and packs have to be characterized not only for their temperature behavior but also for the heat dissipation and the pressure development in a quantitative manner.
Calorimetry allows the collection of quantitative data required for optimum battery performance and safety. This information can then be used to define the requirements for cooling and thermal management and adapt them accordingly. The battery calorimeters can be used for studies on heat generation and dissipation of Li-ion cells and are coupled to a battery cycler in order to perform the measurements during charging and discharging of the cells under defined thermal conditions. Isoperibolic (constant temperature of the calori-meter) or quasiadiabatic (no heat exchange with the calorimeter) ambient conditions are adjusted by heaters and thermocouples that are located in lid, bottom and side walls of the calorimeter chamber, in which the cell is inserted. For improving the thermal management system, the measured temperature data are converted into generated and dissipated heat data  by determination of specific heat capacity and heat transfer coefficient using heat flux sensors.
Concerning safety aspects it will be presented how battery calorimeters provide thermal stability data on materials level, e.g. of anodes, cathodes or electrolytes or there combinations and to perform safety tests on cell and pack level by applying thermal , mechanical or electrical  abuse conditions. The studies on materials level are especially important for Post-Li cells, which make use of more abundant materials, such as sodium or magnesium instead of Li, nickel and cobalt, because these data help to develop safe cells from the beginning all along the value chain. For the advanced Li-ion technology, a holistic safety assessment is in the focus, because the thermal runaway can have multiple interacting causes and effects. A test in the calorimeter is much more sensitive than a hotbox test and reveals the entire process of the thermal runaway with the different stages of exothermic reactions. Self-heating, thermal stability and thermal runaway are characterized and the critical parameters and their thresholds for safe cell operation are determined. As a result of the different tests quantitative and system relevant data for temperature, heat and pressure development of materials and cells are provided. In addition it will be explained how calorimeters allow studying the thermal runaway propagation in order to develop and qualify suitable countermeasures, such as heat protection barriers, which is currently becoming a very hot topic, because a global technical regulation (GTR) on electric vehicle safety is being developed, which includes thermal propagation. There is still the open question, which is the best initialization method to become a standard. We hope that the research in the Calorimeter Center will help to make progress in this field as well.
 C. Ziebert et al., in: L.M. Rodriguez, N. Omar, eds., EMERGING NANOTECHNOLOGIES IN RECHARGABLE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS, Elsevier Inc., ISBN 978032342977, 195-229. 2017.
 B. Lei, W. Zhao, C. Ziebert, et al., Experimental analysis of thermal runaway in 18650 cylindrical cells using an accelerating rate calorimeter, Batteries 3 (2017) 14, doi:10.3390/batteries3020014..
 A. Hofmann, N. Uhlmann, C. Ziebert, O. Wiegand, A. Schmidt, Th. Hanemann, Preventing Li-ion cell explosion during thermal runaway with reduced pressure, Appl. Thermal Eng. 124 (2017) 539-544.