Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems operating in the centimeter-wave (cmWave) and millimeter-wave (mmWave) region offer huge spectral efficiencies, which enable to satisfy the urgent need for higher data rates in mobile communication networks. However, the proper design of those massive MIMO systems first requires a deep understanding of the underlying wireless propagation channel. Therefore, we present a fully-digital MIMO measurement system operating around 28 GHz. The system enables to take fast subsequent snapshots of the complex MIMO channel matrix. Based on this method we statistically analyze the time-dependent channel behavior, the achievable signal quality and spectral efficiency, as well as the channel eigenvalue profile. Furthermore, the presented calibration approach for the receiver enables an estimation of the dominant absolute angle of arrival (AoA) and allows us to draw conclusions about the line-of-sight (LOS) dominance of the scenario. In total, 159 communication measurements over 20 seconds are conducted in three different small cell site scenarios to investigate the wireless propagation behavior. ... mehrThe measurements reveal the existence of several spatial propagation paths between the mobile transmitter and the base station. Furthermore, an insight into their likelihood in different propagation scenarios is also given.