Sodium-ion batteries have received significant interest as a cheaper alternative to lithium-ion batteries and could be more viable for use in large scale energy storage systems. However, similarly to lithium-ion batteries, their performance remains limited by the positive electrode materials. Layered transition metal oxides, with chemical formula NaxMO2, have been extensively investigated and appear to show the most promise. However, the inability to reversibly extract large amounts of sodium ions from these layered structures, by charging to high voltages, has limited the useful capacity and cycle life of these materials. To address this, numerous studies have attempted to resolve the structural and chemical changes that take place in positive electrode materials upon cycling. This is particularly important at and near the charged state, which is where the materials' structures are highly sodium deficient. Following a brief introduction into the status of sodium-ion battery positive electrodes, this work focuses on the development of knowledge and understanding into the structure of layered oxides at the charged state by highlighting cutting edge characterisation techniques that have been utilised. ... mehrFinally, a perspective on future development is provided to direct further structural characterisation research which will enable the rational design of new and improved energy storage materials.